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Writing in your own words using academic sources is an important, but difficult, skill. Summarizing and paraphrasing are two writing techniques that don’t involve direct quotes.
Summarizing captures the big picture and lets your reader know generally what a source said.
You can paraphrase more specific ideas or points made by an author, but using your own words instead of theirs.
Summarized and paraphrased materials do need citations, just like quotes. After all, you’re referencing someone else’s ideas – and it’s the thought that counts when it comes to plagiarism.
Strategies for writing in your own words include:
For more information about the difference between quoting, paraphrasing, and summarizing, check out the Purdue OWL guide.
Driscoll, D.L & Brizee, A. (2013, February 15). Quoting, paraphrasing, and summarizing. Retrieved from https://owl.english.purdue.edu/owl/resource/563/1/
Chicago is most commonly used to cite sources within the discipline of music. Here are a few helpful resources if you're using this style:
Turabian is a condensed version of the Chicago Manual of Style. The two styles are similar, but not necessarily identical. Turabian is used by historians, including some music historians. Here are two helpful resources to get you started with this style:
MLA is a citation style used in the arts and humanities, including music. Helpful places to start with this style include: